United States science and technology policy: the effects of a changing international environment
Published in Simon Schwartzman (coord.), Science and Technology in Brazil - A New Policy for a Global World, volume 1 Rio de Janeiro, Fundação Getúlio Vargas, 1995, pp. 105-139.
Publisher Fundação Getúlio Vargas
Collection simonschwartzman; additional_collections
The most obvious political change on the international scene is the end of the Cold War that has greatly reduced the rationale for what has been the majority of research and development (R&D) funding by the United States government (defense takes some 60 per cent of the federal R&D support in the current 1993 fiscal year), and for about 30-40 per cent of all funding, private and public, devoted to R&D (total public and private resources devoted to R&D in FY 1993 are estimated to be about US$150 billion). The reduction in the overwhelming security threat comes at a time that has seen a major increase in the level of international economic competition the United States faces, particularly in technology-related fields. The once dominant American international trade position has given way to negative trade balances, even in high-technology products which had been considered the hallmarks of United States comparative advantage.